Graphic: READER’S DIGEST ULTIMATE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE
Simply put, volcanoes are an opening in the Earth’s surface where gas, hot magma, and ash can escape. The word “volcano” comes from the Roman name “Vulcan” – the Roman god of fire. Volcanoes are often found where tectonic plates meet, although they can be found in the middle of tectonic plates. Volcanoes are regarded as extinct (no known eruptions in at least 10,000 years and not considered likely); dormant (they haven’t erupted recently, maybe not for thousands of years, but could erupt at some point); and active (showing signs of unrest up to and including eruption). Volcanoes also come in different shapes – shield (flat), composite (tall and thin), cinder cones (circular or oval cones), and lava domes (where dome-shaped deposits of hardened lava have built up around the vent, as the lava is too thick to flow very far. Magma is a hot liquid rock inside a volcano. Once it leaves the volcano, it is known as lava. There are 1500 active volcanoes on the earth and 80 below the ocean. The world’s largest volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii.
Living in the Pacific Northwest, we have two mountain ranges – the Olympics and the Cascades. There are ten volcanoes in Washington. All of them are part of the Cascade Mountain Range but only five are considered active. And of the five, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Mount Rainier is one of our nation's most dangerous volcanoes.
1. Glacier Peak – last erupted a few hundred years ago, an active stratovolcano
2. Goat Rocks – last erupted 1.5 million years ago, an extinct stratovolcano
3. Indian Heaven – volcanic field, many of its volcanoes erupted once before becoming extinct, there are approximately 50 eruptive centers that lie within the Indian Heaven field
4. Mount Adams – the largest volcano in Washington State and among the largest in the Cascades, an active stratovolcano
5. Mount Baker – last erupted 130 years ago, an active andesitic stratovolcano
6. Mount Rainier – last erupted 125 years ago in 1894-95, an active stratovolcano
7. Mount St. Helens – last erupted on May 18, 1980, active stratovolcano
8. Signal Peak – (probably) extinct andesitic stratovolcano
9. Simcoe – (probably) extinct volcanic field
10. West Crater – most recent activities occurred about 8,000 years ago, a small, dormant andesitic lava dome
Now that you know some important information about volcanoes. Are you inspired to “be prepared, not scared?”
Please join Kids Co. in being “prepared, not scared.” At all of our centers, we will be providing tools and information, including an emergency kit checklist and preparedness plans, to our kids and families so they can be prepared at home. Follow us on social media for “how to prepare” and “survival” information directly from FEMA, The Federal Emergency Management Agency hosting National Preparedness Month.
We are also launching an online fundraising campaign in October so Kids Co. can build up our 3-days of emergency supplies to 7-days.